Tidal irrigation equipment is the subsurface irrigation of levee soils in coastal
plains with river water under tidal influence. It is applied in (semi)arid zones
at the mouth of a large river estuary or delta where a considerable tidal range
(some 2 m) is present. The river discharge must be large enough to guarantee a
sufficient flow of fresh water into the sea so that no salt water intrusion
occurs in the river mouth.
The irrigation equipment supplier is effectuated by digging tidal canals from the river shore into the main land that will guide the river water inland at high tide.
For the irrigation to be effective the soil must have a high infiltration capacity to permit the entry of sufficient water in the soil to cover theevapotranspiration demand of the crop.
At low tide, the canals and the soil drain out again, which promotes the aeration of the soil.
Large plantations were found in colonised countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, but also in countries employing slave labor. It concerned mostly the large scale cultivation of commercial crops such as bananas,sugarcane and cotton.
As a result of land reforms, in many countries the estates were reformed into a cooperatives in which the previous employers became members and exercised a cooperative form of land and water management.